Self-Etch Systems For self-etch systems
(6th and 7th generation), the acidity stems from the addition of acidic monomers. Typically, these compounds bear carboxylic or phosphoric acid groups and achieve creation of a mechanical retention pattern by etching the tooth structure, and chemical bonding by complex formation with the calcium ions present at the tooth. Their acidity varies considerably and can be significantly less than that of phosphoric acid. When applied onto the tooth surface, the acidic adhesive will demineralize and penetrate into the surface simultaneously. It is not rinsed away to leave the dentin tubules open and exposed. They remain sealed. The adhesive is then air dried and light cured. On dentin, this has clear advantages: the danger of overetching, overdrying of the etched dentin and occurrence of post-operative sensitivity is greatly reduced compared to total-etch adhesives. However, on the enamel surfaces, this reduced acidity can lead to a less pronounced etch pattern compared to phosphoric acid, especially on unprepared or uncut surfaces. Therefore, most self-etch adhesive systems require the incorporation of a separate phosphoric acid etch of these uncut enamel surfaces prior to applying the self-etch adhesives. Self-etch adhesives with a pH < 2 are classified as “strong” self-etch adhesives, whereas those with a pH > 2 are classified as “mild.” Mild self-etch adhesives are preferred over strong ones because they still provide for a strong bond to dentin, however their formulations are less hydrophilic and therefore less prone to undergo hydrolytic degradation, leading to improved shelf life and improved longevity of the restoration. With the mild self-etch adhesive systems, including Adper™ Easy Bond Self-Etch Adhesive, a “selective” enamel etch technique is often used and recommended on the enamel (cut and uncut) surfaces to maximize the adhesion to the more highly mineralized enamel. The dentin is not etched to take advantage of the self-etch properties on less mineralized dentin, leaving the surface sealed and offering protection from potential sensitivity.
3M ESPE Scotchbond Etchant is a 37% phosphoric etchant liquid-gel which is used to etch enamel and/or dentin as indicated in the instructions provided with the various dental adhesives systems.
INDICATION: 3M ESPE Scotchbond etchant and etching liquid are intended for use in the acid etch technique.
Scotchbond™ Universal DCA Dual Cure Activator The Scotchbond™ Universal DCA Dual Cure Activator consists of sodium toluene sulfinate and ethanol. When the activator is mixed with Scotchbond Universal adhesive, it allows for bonding to self- and dual-curing core build-up, composite and cement materials that rely on the self-cure mechanism for polymerizing the material.
Scotchbond™ Universal Etchant Scotchbond™ Universal Etchant is available for the selective enamel etch and total-etch placement modes.
Scotchbond Universal adhesive etchant superficially demineralizes the enamel and dentin in preparation for bonding. The etchant is 32% phosphoric acid by weight and has a pH of approximately 0.1. The viscosity of the phosphoric acid gel etchant is modified with fumed silica and a water soluble polymer. Scotchbond Universal etchant has a distinct blue color to assist in complete rinsing away of the etchant in order to avoid remnants of fumed silica or phosphoric acid on the prepared tooth surface.
Mechanism of Adhesion Total-Etch
Systems For total-etch systems (4th and 5th generation), a phosphoric acid etching step is utilized to modify both the dentin and enamel surfaces to allow penetration of the adhesives into the tooth surfaces and achieve a mechanical bond. Phosphoric acid is considered a strong acid with an approximate pH of less than 0.5. It is very effective in dissolving the smear layer and the mineral within the collagen matrix of the dentin and the mineral of the enamel to expose the prismatic crystal structure. On enamel, the phosphoric acid treatment allows for very effective and consistent bonding to both the uncut and cut (prepared) surfaces. Dentists have relied on this high enamel bond integrity to prevent microleakage, marginal degradation and staining. On dentin, the phosphoric acid treatment completely removes the smear layer, leaving the dentin tubules open and exposed. The collagen matrix is also demineralized. In this situation it is imperative to completely seal the tubules to prevent sensitivity and for some systems, the demineralized collagen should be kept moist to prevent the collapse of the collagen fibers and subsequent reduction in bond strength.
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